BLDC Motors
Brushless Motors

Anaheim Automation's BLDC Motor is designed for high volume OEM applications with low cost being the primary objective. Choose from a range of sizes from 0.3" to 4.8" in diameter, from under 1 Watt to 2200 Watts of power. There are hundreds of BLDC Motor products off-the-shelf and many custom options are also available. Options include optimizing the maximum speed, torque, current, voltage, cabling, wiring, connectors, and shaft modifications.


Brushless Motor Selector
This utility will guide you in selecting the correct motor for your application!
Voltage: DC
Torque:
oz*in
 N*m
lb*in
Speed: RPM
Single Shaft
 Dual Shaft



  • Torque: 0.7 to 900 Ounce-Inches
  • Sizes: Ten sizes from NEMA 09 to 48
  • Huge Selection with a Large Stock Base
  • Ideal Solution for Velocity Control Applications
  • Customization for Voltage, Current and Max Speed
  • Round-Bodied, Square Flange and Square-Faced Styles
  • Shaft Modifications and Motor Adders Available
  • Torque: 0.7 to 900 Ounce-Inches
  • Sizes: NEMA 23 and 34
  • Meets Splash-proof Requirements
  • Ideal for Harsh or Humid Environments
  • Protective Shaft Seals for Longer Life Cycles
  • Up to Five Stack Lengths, Several Windings
  • Customization and Motor Adders Available

Frequently Asked Questions
What are poles in a Brushless DC Motor?
Poles in the BLDC motors refer to the Magnetic North and South poles in the Permanent Magnet. A 4 pole motor has 2 North Poles and 2 South Poles. The higher the number of poles, the smoother the motor will run.

What is the recommended cable distance between Anaheim Automation BLDC motors and drivers?
We recommend that the wiring between BLDC motors and controller not exceed 25 feet. Although it is not required, we suggest using Anaheim Automation shielded motor cable. This cable is ideally suited to handle all driver and motor combinations that we offer. We can also add connectors to the cables. Please contact an Applications Engineer for more details.

Are there any environmental considerations I should be aware of to operate a BLDC motor and controller?
Precaution must be taken by the user with respect to the environment of the BLDC motor during operation, repair, and service. The environment in which a BLDC Motor is used must be conducive to good general practices of electrical equipment. Do not run a BLDC motor near flammable gases, dust, oil, vapor or moisture. The BLDC motor must be protected by a cover if operated outdoors, ensuring the motor receives adequate air flow and cooling. Any presence of moisture may result in system failure and/or electric shock. Therefore adequate care should be taken to avoid any interaction between the motor and any kind of moisture or vapors. A BLDC motor should be installed in an environment free from vibration, shock, condensation, dust and electrical noise. Anaheim Automation carries a full line of IP65 Rated BLDC motors for operation in harsh, humid environments.

What is the lifetime of Anaheim Automation’s motors and gearboxes?
Under normal operating parameters, Anaheim Automation's Stepper and BLDC Motors and gearboxes have rated lifetimes of 20,000 hours.


Helpful Information
What are BLDC Motors
Brushless DC motors are also known as BLDC Motors; synchronous electric motors that are DC (Direct Current) powered. They are electronically commutated without brushes making them "Brushless". BLDC Motors consist of a fixed armature along with permanent magnets that rotate, hall sensors, stator windings, rotor magnet North and South, hall sensor magnets, an accessory shaft, and a driving end of the shaft.

Accessories
Anaheim Automation provides many different accessories for our bldc motors. These accessories include a brake, encoder, connector, cable and a driver. The BLDC motors brake is a 24vdc system. These bldc motor brakes are perfect for any holding applications. They are available on any of Anaheim Automation BLDC motors, and are already attached to the rear of the BLDC motors. The BLDC motor brakes have a low voltage design for applications that are susceptible to weak batter, brown out, or long wiring runs. When electric power is applied to the bldc motor brake the armature is pulled by the electromagnet force in the magnet body assembly, which overcomes the spring action. This allows the friction disc to rotate freely. When electrical power is interrupted, the electromagnetic force is removed and the pressure spring mechanically forces the armature plate to clamp the friction disc between itself and the pressure plate. BLDC motors cables can be made with the supplied BLDC motors connector, or can be purchased from Anaheim Automation.

Consumer Electronics
Consumer Electronics Although BLDC motors may perform the same functions originally fulfilled by brushed DC motors, cost and control complications prevent BLDC motors from completely replacing brushed motors. However, BLDC motors have monopolized many areas of the consumer electronics industry, and are used in many different locations, including computer hard drives and CD/DVD players. BLDC motors are used to operate the small cooling fans that are located in electronic equipment as well. Cordless power tools also utilize BLDC motors because the need for increased efficiency of the BLDC motor allows for long periods of use before needing to recharge the battery. Furthermore, direct-drive turntables for ?analog? audio disks use low-speed, low-power BLDC motors. Transport Electric and hybrid vehicles use high power BLDC motors that are essentially AC synchronous with permanent magnet rotors. BLDC motors are used in Segway and Vectrix-Maxi-Scooters also. Electric bicycles sometimes build BLDC motors into their wheel hubs, with the stator solidly fixed to the axle and magnets attached to and rotating with the wheel. These electric bicycles have a standard bicycle transmission with pedals, sprockets, and chain that, if needed, can be pedaled along with or without the use of the BLDC motors. Heating and Ventilation It has become a popular trend to switch from AC motors to BLDC motors (EC) because of the dramatic reduction in power needed o run them, versus the typical AC motor. Although shaded-pole and permanent split capacitor motors were the primary fan motor of choice, many fans today are being run by BLDC motors. Some use BLDC motors simply to increase system efficiency as a whole. Certain HVAC systems use ECM motors (electronically commutated BLDC motors). Particularly these are the HVAC systems that feature load modulation and/or variable-speed. BLDC motors not only have higher efficiency, but also a built-in microprocessor that allows for better airflow control, programmability, and serial communication. Model Engineering and Hobbyists The most popular motor choice for model aircraft today are BLDC motors. The BLDC motors are available in a wide array of sizes, and have a favorable power to weight ratios. BLDC motors have transformed the market of electric-powered flight. The introduction of BLDC motors has displaced the use of almost all brushed electric motors in model aircraft and helicopters. Modern batteries and BLDC motors allow model airplanes to vertically ascend, versus gradually climb. Small glow fuel internal combustion engines that were used in the past are no comparison to the silent and clean BLDC motors. BLDC motors have also increased in popularity among the Radio Controlled (RC) cars, buggies, and trucks, where sensor-type BLDC motors allow the position of the rotor magnet to be detected. Many BLDC motors feature upgrades and replaceable parts like sintered neodymium-iron-boron (rare earth magnets), replaceable motor timing assemblies, and ceramic bearings. As a result, these BLDC motors are quickly ascending to the top of the list as far as preferred motor types for electric on and off-road RC racers. BLDC motors have low-maintenance, high reliability and power efficiency ~ most BLDC motors with an efficiency rating of 80% or more.

Medical Applications
BLDC Motors have become popular amongst the medical industry for its long-lasting design. Used in medical equipment, BLDC motors have a life expectancy of 10,000 hours, versus the 2,000-5,000 hour lifespan of the brushed motor. BLDC motors also have a top speed that is not limited by a large number of poles. It wasnt until the cost of these Brushless Motors decreased, that they became a viable option for most medical applications. BLDC motors can provide a more efficient, reliable, and compact motor that can be used in a variety of ways. Basically, BLDC Motors aresynchronous electric motors that are powered by a DC power source. An electric commutation circuit replaces the standard commutator and brush assembly found in the brushed DC motor. Brushless motors and brushed DC motors are essentially polar opposites. While the windings of Brushed DC motors rotate around the rotating shaft or armature, the brushless motors have windings that are attached to the motor housing. The magnets of the Brushed DC Motors attach to the motor housing, while BLDC motors magnets are affixed to the rotor. Commutation is the process of reversing the polarity of the phase currents in the windings of the motor at an exact time that will produce continuous rotational torque. If commutation did not occur, the magnets and magnetic fields would lock the rotating shaft in place by aligning themselves. The appropriate reversal time is crucial; the shaft of the brushless motors must continue spinning, and it does so as a result of the changing polarity of the windings. The primary way BLDC Motors and a brushed DC motors differ is in their methods of commutation. Brushed DC motors use brushes and a commutator that acts as an electromechanical switch to connect the windings in the proper polarity. In BLDC Motors, electronic switches take the place of the mechanical switch, controlling the timing of the polarity-reversal by an electrical circuit. Usually, BLDC Motors sense rotor position and controls the electronic drive of BLDC Motors by using Hall-effect devices (HFD). However, because of the ability to monitor motor back-EMF, HFD can be eliminated to create a sensorless BLDC motors drive. These motors are far less expensive, and are a primary reason they appeal in medical equipment design. Sleep Apnea can also be treated with the help of BLDC Motors. Treatment for the disorder requires the use of Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) respirators. The PAP respirator is attached to a special breathing mask that the patient must wear to breathe through while sleeping. Within the respirator is a blower fan that pressurizes the air mask, according to the patients breathing pattern. As the patient inhales, the blower fan speeds up, allowing more air to reach the lungs. Oppositely, when the patient exhales, the blower fan slows down to reduce the amount of air the patient breathes out. BLDC Motors never need to operate underneath the minimum threshold speed of the drive, so they are the perfect power source for blower fans. Furthermore, there is no risk for any sudden changes in load. Low-noise-level standards force hospital equipment to be as quiet as possible, thus making BLDC Motors a prime candidate due to how silent they are in operation. BLDC Motors can operate at high speeds with accuracy, and yet maintain a silent sound. Therefore, they can be used both in hospitals, and in the patients home. It is the absence of a commutator and brushes in BLDC Motors that removes even more of the motor noise.

Applications
A BLDC Motors are applied in a variety of applications in many different industries. For example some of many applications are Semiconductor, CNC, Applicances, Packaging Equipment, Instrumentation, Automotive, Consumer, Medical, and Aerospace.

Basic Types
All BLDC Motors are permanent magnet motors. There are also two basic types labeled as a Trapezoidal Motor and the other as a Sine Wave Motor. The Trapezoidal Motor is said to be a DC servo motor and the Sine Wave Motor has close resemblance to an AC synchronous motor.

Basics
The basic definition for a BLDC motors are an programmed device that uses an error-correction routine to correct the motion of the BLDC motors. The general term BLDC can be applied to systems other than a BLDC motors that use a feedback mechanism such as an encoder or other feedback device to control the motion parameters. Typically when the term BLDC is used it applies to BLDC motors but this term is also used as a general control term with the meaning of a feedback loop to position whatever the product is including a BLDC motors. BLDC motors differ from other controlled motors because its controlled by a time-based derivative commonly known to as the PID loop. A BLDC motors that are used to control position must be capable of changing the velocity of the output shaft because the time-based derivative, or the rate of change of position, is velocity.

Construction
The Stator The stator of BLDC Motors are made up of stacked steel laminations the windings are inserted in the slots that are cut inside the laminations. The stator of BLDC Motors are similar to that of an AC motor however the windings are different. A BLDC Motors have three stator windings connected in either a star or Delta configuration. Each of these windings are developed from multiple coils connected together to form a winding.Anaheim Automation typically has six coils in each one of the BLDC Motors which are made into a three-phase winding. There is usually an even number of polls. There are mainly two forms of stator windings trapezoidal and sinusoidal. The difference is made on the basis of the interconnection of the coils of the stator windings which results in a different type of back EMF the trapezoidal variant gives its back EMF in the shape of a trapezoid. Each sinusoidal variation gives BLDC Motors a back EMF that matches with the current. The faulted also is used as the shape of the sinusoid and a trapezoid. The difference between the two BLDC Motors are that the sinusoidal BLDC Motor have smoother output torque than that of a trapezoidal BLDC Motors. The stator will winding can be wound for multiple folk voltages. This can be customized for almost any certain applications are speed and torque requirements. The Rotor The rotor is made up of permanent magnets and usually have between two and eight poles the magnets are bonded onto the rotor core in switching north and south pole fields. Ferrite magnets are normally used to make the permanent magnet rotor. For higher power density applications, rare earth magnets are getting used more frequently then ferrite magnets that are less expensive but have lower flux density when compared to the rare earth magnets. The price of rare earth magnets is also coming down. Higher power density means that the BLDC Motors can put out much more torque in a smaller volume which is beneficial to manufacturers that are continuously pushed provide smaller and smaller packages. Rare earth magnet types: Neodymium (Nd) Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) The alloy of Neodymium, Ferrite, and Boron (NdFeB)

Cost
BLDC Motors vary in price. They can be anywhere from twenty dollars or less to several hundred dollars, possibly more. It just depends on the size and capabilities of the motor itself.

Customization
The establishment of Anaheim Automation as a manufacturer of turkey motion control systems took place in 1966. Our emphasis on R&D has insured the continued production of high tech BLDC Motors drivers/controllers, such as the BLDC Motors product line. As many other products Anaheim Automation offers alongside with the BLDC Motors product line, Anaheim Automation ranks high among the leading distributor and manufacturers of motion control products, given this high ranking for its excellent name for quality products at competing prices. There is a wide variety of standard BLDC Motors offered at Anaheim Automation. Sometimes our OEM customers with mid to large quantity requirements like to have customization done to their BLDC Motors to fit their exact design requirements. Sometimes the customization to the BLDC Motors are as simple as an oil seal for an IP65 rating, wire colors, label, shaft modification, mounting dimensions, or brake. The customization can also be as complex as making adjustments to the torque, speed and/or voltage. Engineers appreciate that Anaheim Automations BLDC Motors product line can resolve their desire for creativity, flexibility and system efficiency. Buyers appreciate the simplicity of the one-stop shop, and the cost savings of a custom BLDC Motors design, while engineers are pleased with Anaheim Automations devoted involvement in their unique BLDC Motors systems. Anaheim Automations standard BLDC Motors product line is known for its rugged construction and excellent performance and is very cost-effective. A considerable size of its sales growth has resulted from dedicated engineering, friendly customer service and professional application assistance, often surpassing the customers expectations for fulfilling their custom requirements. While a good portion of Anaheim Automations BLDC Motors sales involves special, custom, or private-labeling requirements, the company takes pride in its standard stock base located in Anaheim, California, USA. To make customization of a BLDC Motors affordable, a minimum quantity and/or a Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE) fee is required. Contact the factory for details, should you require a custom BLDC Motors in your design. A NCNR agreement must be signed customer per each request, and all sales for a customized or modified BLDC Motors are Non-Cancelable-Non-Returnable. All Sales, including a customized BLDC Motors, are made pursuant to Anaheim Automations standard Terms and Conditions, and are in lieu of any other expressed or implied terms, including but not limited to any implied warranties. Anaheim Automation has a wide range of customers for the BLDC Motors product line: companies running or developing automated machinery or processes that involve food, medical packaging, special filming and projection effects, inspection and security devices, assembly, labeling or tamper-evident requirements, cosmetics, medical diagnostics, conveyor, pump flow control, robotics, equipment upgrades, and metal fabrication (CNC machinery). Many OEM customers request that we private-label the BLDC Motors, so that their customers stay loyal to them for servicing, replacements and repairs. PLEASE NOTE: Technical support regarding its BLDC Motors, as well as all the products manufactured or distributed by Anaheim Automation, is offered at no charge. This will help Anaheim Automations customers choose the right product for a specific application. However, any selection, quotation, or application advice for a BLDC Motors, or any other products, offered from Anaheim Automations staff, its representatives or distributors, are only to assist the customer. In all cases, determination of fitness of the custom BLDC Motors in a specific system design is solely the customers responsibility. While every effort is made to offer solid advice regarding the BLDC Motors, as well as other motion control products, and to produce technical data and illustrations accurately, such advice and documents are for reference only, and subject to change without notice.

Encoder Feedback
For low-speed products it is advised to use an encoder for the feedback rather than the Hall sensors. The number of counts per revolution for the Hall sensor can only be as large as the number of polls times the number of Hall Sensors. The BLDC Motors controllers can use this higher count to its advantage when operating the BLDC Motors. The BLDC Motors controllers can use the extra information with more counts per revolution at its disposal for more accurate control of the velocity. The BLDC Motors controllers can more finely control the BLDC Motors with a higher resolution on the encoder. Though when evaluating prices yes the encoder is more costly than the Hall sensor, but with the encoders you receive precise control at a lower cost than alternate technologies such as AC motors, Servo motors, or Synchronous motors.

Environmental Considerations
The following environmental and safety criteria must be observed during all phases of operation, repair and service of BLDC Motors systems. Failing to comply with these precautions violates safety criteria of design, manufacture and designed use of the BLDC Motors and controllers. Please note that even a well-built BLDC Motors controlled and installed improperly, can be hazardous. Precaution must be observed by the user with respect to the load and operating environment. The customer is ultimately responsible for the proper selection, installation, and operation of the BLDC Motors systems. The atmosphere in which BLDC Motors are put into use must be conducive to good standard practices of electrical/electronic equipment. Never operate the BLDC Motors in the presence of moisture, oil, vapor, flammable gases, or dust. For outdoor use, the BLDC Motors and controllers must be guarded from the elements by an adequate cover, while still providing adequate air flow and cooling. Moisture can cause an electrical shock hazard and/or induce system breakdown. Due consideration should be given to the avoidance of liquids and vapors of any kind. Contact the factory should your application require specific IP ratings. It is wise to install the BLDC Motors and controllers in an environment which is free from shock, condensation, electrical noise, and vibration. Additionally, it is preferable to work with the BLDC Motors and controllers systems in a non-static protective environment. Uncovered circuitry should always be properly guarded and/or enclosed to prevent unauthorized human exposure with live circuitry. Absolutely no work should be conducted while power is applied. Do not plug in or unplug the connectors when power is ON. Wait for at least 5 minutes before doing examination work on the BLDC Motors system after turning power OFF, because even after the power is turned off, there will still be some electrical energy leftover in the capacitors of the internal circuit of the BLDC Motors controllers. Plan the installation of the BLDC Motors and controllers in a system design that is free from debris, such as metal debris from cutting, drilling, tapping, and welding, or any other foreign material that could come in contact with circuitry. Failing to prevent debris from entering the BLDC Motors system can result in damage and/or shock.

First Use of BLDC Motors
It is said that BLDC Motors have been in commercial use and possible since 1962, although the first BLDC Motors appeared during the 1800s. This was made possible by the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means, which was demonstrated by a British scientist by the name of Michael Farady in 1821. A Hungarian physicist by the name of nyos Jedlik began experimenting with devices he called electromagnetic self-rotors in 1827. At the time, they were only used for instructional purposes. In 1828, he demonstrated the first device to contain the three main components of practical direct current motorss; the rotor, commutator, and stator. The magnetic fields of both the revolving and stationary components were produced solely by currents flowing through their windings and the motorss did not contain permanent magnets in those times. In 1832, William Sturgeon, also a British scientist invented the first commutator-type direct current electric motors capable of turning machinery. Americans, Thomas and Emily Davenport built a commutator-type direct current electric motors with the intention of commercial use in following Sturgeon's work and patented in 1837. The motorss were used for a printing press and powered machine tools. They were said to have ran up to 600 revolutions per minute (RPM). The BLDC motors were commercially unsuccessful due to the high costs of the primary battery power, also there was no practical commercial market for the motorss at that time. Modern BLDC motors was accidently invented in 1873, when a dynamo was to a similar motors driving it as a motors by Znobe Gramme. He then created the Gramme Machine, it was the first electric motors that was successful in the industry. A non-sparking motors capable of constant speed under variable loads was the first practical BLDC motors was invented in 1886 by Frank Julian Sprague.

Hall Sensor Feedback
The feedback for a BLDC Motors is done by the use of Hall sensors when rotating the BLDC Motors in the stator windings need to be energized sequentially. In order to understand the next winding that would need to be energized in the correct sequence, the controller needs to know the rotor position. The BLDC Motors utilizes three Hall sensors, and these Hall sensors that are embedded in the back end cap of the BLDC Motors housing sense the rotor position. They are separated by either 60 or 120. Hall sensors sense either the rotor magnet or external magnet placed in the back of the shaft, and sends off a signal signifying whether or not a North or South Pole passes the censors. Using each signal from the sensors, the BLDC Motors controller can easily maintain the BLDC Motors velocity. The Hall sensors are normally mounted on a PC board and fixed to the back end cap on the non-driving end of the BLDC Motors.

Housing
BLDC Motors models now days are manufactured with the housing less design where the laminations are exposed and coated with a paint to prevent rusting from occurring. Then there are some BLDC Motors types that are still being manufactured in a housed extrusion or aluminum or steel cylindrical housing where the laminations of the stator are placed and secured inside.

How are BLDC Motors controlled
Most BLDC Motors need a controller/driver to run. There are many different types of controllers/drivers that are manufactured around the world for different applications. Many come with different options and can be custom made. Most are referred to as Electronic Speed Controller (ESC). In a BLDC Motor Controller/Driver, either a Hall Effect Sensor or the Back EMF (Electromotive Force) is used to run the motor. The Hall Effect uses three hall sensors within the motor to help detect the position of the rotor. This method is primarily used in speed detection, positioning, current sensing, as well as proximity switching. The magnetic field changes in response to the transducer that varies its output voltage. A feedback is created by directly returning a voltage since the sensor operates as an analogue transducer. The distance between the Hall plate and a known magnetic field can be determined with a group of sensors, in this case, three, and the relative position of the magnet can be deduced. A Hall sensor can act as an on/off switch in a digital mode when combined with circuitry. The Back EMF, also known as the Counter-Electromotive Force is caused by a changing electromagnetic field. In BLDC Motors, the back EMF is a voltage that occurs where there is motion between the external magnetic field and the armature of the motor. In other words, the voltage is developed in an inductor by and alternating current or pulsating current. At every moment, the polarity of the voltage is the reverse of the input voltage. This method is commonly used to measure the motor's position and speed indirectly.

How Do BLDC Motors Work
BLDC motors have an electronic commutation system, no brushes and no mechanical commutators. This allows the BLDC Motors to operate at higher speeds. There can be a different amount of poles on the stator for each motor.

How to select BLDC Motors
When selecting BLDC Motors, you want to ask yourself a few questions. Such as, what is my application? What are my specifications? How much do I want to spend? What controller/driver and I going to use/need? These are some of the questions you want to think about to narrow down your selection. You will definitely want to do your research. The type of application will need to be determined for your BLDC Motors. You will then need to determine all specifications, known ones along with possible ones. For example, do you need a specific frame size, weight, power, speed, length, etc. Once you have determined all those things, you will need to take into consideration on what controller/driver you will be using. This goes hand in hand with the selection of the motor. Keep in mind there are many different motors and driver/controllers to choose from, therefore it is wise to do detailed research.

Modern day uses of BLDC Motors
BLDC Motors have and continue to rise in popularity for many different applications. Although, BLDC Motors may cost a little more than DC Brushed Motors, they have far more advantages than disadvantages. Many industries have turned to Brushless motors for their applications. For specific Industries, please check the "What Industries are BLDC Motors used in" section.

Mounting
The following information is intended as a overall guideline for the installation and mounting of BLDC Motors systems. WARNING - When voltages reach dangerous levels the BLDC Motors systems are capable of causing injury or death. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and adjusting during installation, set-up, and operation. During the installation and mounting process it is very important that the wiring of BLDC Motors and controllers be taken into consideration. Subpanels installed inside of the enclosure for mounting BLDC Motors systems components, must be a flat, rigid surface that will be free from shock, vibration, moisture, oil, vapors, or dust. Remember that the BLDC Motors and controllers will produce heat during work; therefore, heat dissipation should be considered in designing the system layout. To be sure not to exceed the maximum ambient temperature rating, size the enclosure. It is suggested that the BLDC Motors controllers be mounted in position as to provide adequate airflow. The BLDC Motors ought to be mounted in a stable fashion, secured tightly. NOTE: There should be a minimum of 10mm in between the BLDC Motors controllers and any other devices mounted in the system/electric panel or cabinet. NOTE: in order to comply with UL and CE requirements, the BLDC Motors systems must be grounded in a grounded conducive enclosure offering protection as defined in standard EN 60529 (IEC 529) to IP55 such that they are not accessible to the operator or unskilled person. As with any moving part in a system, the BLDC Motors should be kept out of the reach of the operator. A NEMA 4X enclosure surpasses those conditions offering protection to IP66. To improve the bond between the power rail and the subpanel, construct your subpanel out of zinc-plated (paint-free) steel. In addition, it is strongly suggested that the BLDC Motors controllers be protected against electrical noise interferences. Noise from signal wires can cause mechanical vibration and malfunctions.

Physical Properties of BLDC Motors
BLDC Motors have the physical appearance of a 3-phase permanent magnet that is stationary which is located on the outside, which is known as the Stator. The rotating armature is located inside and is also called the rotor. BLDC Motors can be constructed in many different physical configurations. One configuration is known as the "Inrunner" type where the permanent magnets are a part of the rotor and three stator windings are surround the rotor. Another configuration is the "Outrunner" type, where the radial-relationship between the coils and magnets is reversed. The stator coils form the core of the motor, while permanent magnets spin within an overhanging rotor surrounding the core.

About BLDC Motors
The key dissimilarity between bldc motors and their predecessors is the process of commutation. Newer BLDC motors are electrically commutated; this is accomplished with Hall elements, by counter EMF, or encoder feedback. Factors That Affect BLDC Motors Life Bearing failure is a major factor when it comes to BLDC motors failing. As a result of using industrial grade components, some BLDC motors have the ability to last lifetimes in excess of 20,000 hours or more. Integrated into these systems are permanently lubricated ball bearings that use special grease, thus eliminating the need for re-lubrication. Non-approved lubricants are not recommended for the motors components because they could potentially shorten the life of BLDC motors. Temperature also plays a key role in the lifespan of BLDC motors. The motors casing in particular must ensure that the heat generated in the motors windings must be dispelled. The motors may face severe damage if it exceeds the specification regarding heat. The motors performance has a direct correlation with the maximum possible rotor temperature, ambient temperature, and duty cycle. As temperature increases, the winding resistance increases, and magnetic forces decrease, ultimately causing performance to dwindle. When running at high continuous loads, all of these factors must be taken into consideration. Heat sinking and forced air-cooling can considerably lower operating temperatures.

Motor Life Cycle
The key dissimilarity between brushless motors, also known as BLDC motors, and their predecessors is the process of commutation. Newer BLDC motors are electrically commutated; this is accomplished with Hall elements, by counter EMF, or encoder feedback. BLDC motors are very useful and cost-effective by their design and construction. However, there are some factors that can negatively affect the life expectancy of the BLDC motor: Key Points to Remember - Bearing failure and lack of lubrication are major factors when it comes to BLDC motors failing. As a result, manufacturers now use industrial grade components so that some BLDC motors now have the ability to last lifetimes in excess of 20,000 hours or more! Integrated into these BLDC motors are permanently lubricated ball bearings that use special grease, thus eliminating the need for re-lubrication. IMPORTANT NOTE: Non-approved lubricants are not recommended for the BLDC motor components because they could potentially shorten the life of the BLDC motor. Temperature also plays a key role in the lifespan of BLDC motors. The motor casing in particular must ensure that the heat generated in the BLDC motors windings must be dispelled. BLDC motors could face severe damage if it exceeds the BLDC motor specification with respect to heat. BLDC motor performance has a direct correlation with the maximum possible rotor temperature, ambient temperature, and duty cycle. As temperature increases, the winding resistance increases, and magnetic forces decrease, ultimately causing BLDC motors to perform less efficiently. When BLDC motors run at high continuous loads, heat sinking and forced air-cooling can considerably lower operating temperatures. Therefore, it is highly recommended that all of these factors be taken into consideration when designing and installing motion control systems that include BLDC motors.

What Industries are BLDC Motors used in
BLDC Motors are quickly growing in popularity and are being used in many industries. Some of the industries are: Instrumentation Medical Appliances Consumer Automotive Industrial Automation Equipment Aerospace Military

Wiring
The standard information provided in the following paragraphs is intended to be a guideline for wiring the Anaheim Automation Brushless Motors. System faults and communication faults can result from routing power and signal wiring on a machine or system, also radiated noise from the close by relays, transformers, and electronic devices can be inducted Brushless Motors and encoder signals, other sensitive low voltage signals, and input/output communications. WARNING - Dangerous voltages capable of causing injury or death, may be present in the Brushless Motors system. Use extreme caution when wiring, adjusting, testing, and handling during installation, tuning, set-up, and operation. Dont make extreme adjustments or changes to the Brushless Motors system parameters, which can cause mechanical vibration and result in failure and/or loss. Do not directly turn On/Off the power supply from the Brushless Motors Controllers when the Brushless Motors are wired. You will decrease the lifetime of the Brushless Motors systems by aging the internal components by frequently switch the power On/Off. Strictly comply with the following rules: - Abide by the Wiring Diagram with each Brushless Motors - Route high-voltage power cables separately from low-voltage power cables. - Segregate input power wiring and Brushless Motors power cables from control wiring and Brushless Motors feedback cables as they leave the Brushless Motors controller. Maintain this separation throughout the wire run. - Use shielded cable for power wiring and provide a grounded 360 degree clamp termination to the enclosure wall. Enable room on the sub-panel for wire bends. - Make all cable routes as short as possible. NOTE: Factory made cables are ideal for use in our Brushless Motors and driver systems. These cables are bought separately, and are designed to minimize EMI. These cables are preferred over customer-built cables to enhance system performance and to supply additional safety for the Brushless Motors system and the user. WARNING - To avoid the possibility of electrical shock, carry out all mounting and wiring of the Brushless Motors and controllers system prior to applying power. Once power is applied, connection terminals may have voltage present.

Advantages and Disadvantages for a BLDC Motors
Some of the advantages of BLDC Motors, include but are not limited to: Higher speed ranges High dynamic response Long operating life Better speed versus torque characteristics Noiseless operation High efficiency Disadvantages for BLDC Motors High cost Additional system wiring is required to power the electronic commutation circuitry Motion controllers/drivers electronics needed to operate BLDC Motors are more complex

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