Quiz Index
AC Quiz

Q: What are the three basic types of AC Motors that Anaheim Automation provides?

A: Induction, Synchronous, and Industrial

Q: What are the components of a Variable Frequency Drive?

A: A Variable Frequency Drive involves an AC motor, controller, and operator interface.

Q: Which motor is typically applied to a Variable Frequency Drive?

A: Three-Phase Induction Motor

Q: What are the main components of an AC Motor?

A: The stationary stator that is on the outside and has coils supplied with AC current, and the inside rotor that is attached to the output shaft.

Q: Why is it necessary for a capacitor to be connected to an AC Induction Motor?

A: Any ACP-M motor considered to be a single-phase induction motor is capacitor-run motors. Therefore, a rotational magnetic field must be generated in order to run it. Capacitors create a power supply with the phase shift that is needed to create the required rotational magnetic field. Three-phase motors on the other hand, always supply power with different phases, so they do not need capacitors.

Q: What is meant by a reversible motor that is rated for 30 minutes?

A: The motor is designed to optimally perform no more than 30 minutes. If ran continuously, the motor will burn out.

1. What is the voltage constant?


2. What is the torque constant?


3. What is the stator?

The Stator contains all the coils of wire which will have voltage induced in them as the magnets pass over them.

4. What is the difference between Wye and Delta windings?

Wye windings give high torque at low rpm, and Delta windings give low torque at low rpm.

5. How do you find the voltage constant?

Take the No load speed and divide by the input voltage applied.

6. What happens when voltage is increased?

The speed of the motor increases as well.

7. What happens when the voltage is decreased?

The speed of the Brushless DC Motor decreases also.

8. If you have two different input voltages and the same torque, what happens to the current and why?

The current will stay the same because of the torque constant. Torque is only relative to Current not voltage.

9. How many phases are in a Brushless DC Motor?


10. What is the difference between a Brush DC motor and Brushless DC Motor?

A DC Brushed Motor needs physical contact to pass current through its motor windings to allow commutations. A DC Brushless Motor needs a controller to commutate.

Bonus Questions

11. How many pulses per revolution in a 4 pole and 8 pole motor for one hall sensor?

4 Pole Motor has 2 pulses per revolution: 4/2 = 2 Pulses
8 Pole Motor has 4 pulses per revolution: 8/2 = 4 Pulses

12. How do you change the direction of the motor by wire swapping?

Switch around the Phases along with the Hall Sensors.

Encoder Quiz

1. What are single output channel incremental encoders used for?

A. Sense Direction
B. Sense Speed (Tachometers)
C. Position Feedback

2. Which of the following is a NOT difference between absolute and an incremental encoder?

A. Absolute encoders provide a unique position.
B. Absolute utilize concentric circles on a transparent disc while incremental encoders utilize evenly spaced opaque sections to determine movement.
C. Both absolute encoders and incremental encoders lose position due to power loss/failure.

3. Which of the following applies to an Index Channel?

A. Position Tracker
B. Reference/ Homing Point
C. Determining Distance
D. All of the Above

4. What does an Encoder do?

A. Senses mechanical motion.
B. Provides information concerning position, velocity and direction.
C. Converts analog into digital information.
D. None of the above.
E. All of the above.

5. What does CPR stand for?

A. Cycles per Revolution
B. Counts per Revolution
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above.

6. Describe the different types of encoder outputs below.

TTL - are logic gate circuits designed to input and output two types of signal states: high (1) and low (0). The transition between high and low signals generates TTL squarewave outputs.

Open Collector - is a sinking output. In the ‘OFF' state, an open collector will be grounded and in the ‘ON' state, the open collector will float. A sourcing input is required for open collector applications.

Line Driver - is a sourcing output. This means that when in ‘ON' state the line driver will supply Vcc and in the ‘OFF' state the driver will float. A sinking input is required for line driver applications.

Push-Pull - is a combination between a line driver and an open collector. In the ‘OFF' state it will be grounded and in the on ‘ON' state it will supply Vcc.

7. Which of the following are encoder advantages?

A. Low cost
B. High resolution
C. High reliability and accuracy
D. Compact size
E. Integration between optical and digital technology
F. All of the Above

8. Quadrature channels are out of phase by how many electrical degrees?

A. 45
B. 120
C. 60
D. 90

9. List the criteria for selecting an encoder:

1. Output
2. Desired Resolution (CPR)
3. Noise and Cable Length
4. Index Channel
5. Cover/Base

10. Calculation: If an encoder has a resolution of 1024 and is mounted to a shaft of diameter 1", what will be the pulses per inch and inch per pulse with this combination?

(1024*4)/(2*pi*.5) = 1303.79 pulses per inch
(1303)^-1 = .000767 inch per pulse

Gearbox Quiz

1. What is backlash on a gearbox?

A. The angle the output shaft of a gearbox can rotate without the input shaft moving.
B. The angle the input shaft of a gearbox can rotate without the output shaft moving.
C. The angle the gears inside the gearbox can rotate.

2. What type of gearbox would be used for right angle applications?

A. Bevel gearbox
B. Planetary gearbox
C. Worm gearbox
D. Helical gearbox
E. A and C

3. Gearboxes can be controlled by _________ motors?

A. Stepper
B. Brushless
C. Brush
D. All of the above

4. The output speed of a gearbox is proportional to _____________?

A. Input shaft speed
B. Gear arrangement
C. Gear ratio
D. Torsional stiffness

5. What is NOT an advantage of a gearbox?

A. High efficiency
B. Increase/decrease of output torque
C. Increase/decrease of output speed
D. Less costly

6. If a brushless motor, rated for 4000 RPM, is combined with a gearbox with a gear ratio of 3:1, what will be the speed of the output shaft?

A. 4000 RPM
B. 12000 RPM
C. 1333 RPM

7. What is the difference between helical gears and spur gears?

A. Helical gears are cut at angles while spur gears are cut straight.
B. Helical gears are cut straight and spur gears are cut at angles.
C. Helical gears are noisier than spur gears.

8. A gear train contains 2 spur gears. The input gear has 25 teeth and the output gear has 200 teeth. Calculate the gear ratio.

Gear Ratio = 200/25 = 8:1

HMI Quiz

What does HMI stand for?

Human Machine Interface

Do HMIs have printing capabilities?

It varies depending on the manufacturer, some will come with specific printers that are compatible, others will not have printing capabilities and some HMIs you can install your own drivers for the printer you'd like.

How do you program an HMI?

There are a few third party programs that can be used to create your HMI graphical user interface such as CodeSys and EV5000. Some HMIs come standard with their own proprietary software, which provides you with functions specific to that HMI. Lastly some HMIs come with SDK packages so that you can program the HMI in your native language. (See Video Tutorials for more information on programming your HMI).

What does an HMI do?

With an HMI you can give your application a centralized unit of control which will allow you to make decisions based on real time events in a visual manner. An HMI must be in constant communication with a controller so the HMI can receive real time data from controller. The HMI accesses specific registers on the controller and makes decisions based on the state of those registers. Most controllers deal with heavy wiring, and without a user interface they require manual input (wiring) to toggle certain registers, but with an HMI this can all be done through software and makes the workload much easier.

What can I do with an HMI?

With an HMI you can give your application a centralized unit of control which will allow you to make decisions based on real time events in a visual manner. HMIs are used in various industries across the globe such as; sheet metal industry, pick and place production, food industry, automotive industry and in the medical field as well.

How does the HMI communicate with other devices?

The HMI must be connected to a device whether it is through Ethernet (RJ45), serial communication (RS232, USB or RS422) or wireless. The two devices baud rates must be in sync so that no miscommunication occurs.

What if my Controller is not supported by this HMI?

Often time HMIs have a list of compatible controllers and devices, but often times the controller you may have is not on this list, so for that reason most software has a generic universal controller. If the software that came with your HMI does not have a universal controller option than you can always try third party software.

What are the benefits of an HMI over a desktop?

The added benefits of an HMI are; there is a dedicated system specific to your application which means that you have a panel which will not allow internet browsing, solitaire game play and update reminders unless it pertains to your application. HMI's give you absolute control; meaning that you may give the user limited access to specific features or full access pending on how you create your interfaces.

Stepper Quiz

How does a Stepper Motor move?

A. Electrical Pulse
B. Continuous Applied Voltage
C. Alternates from A and B

A pulse can be produce by which means?

A. Microprocessor
B. Timing Logic
C. Toggle Switch
D. All of the above

Which of the following is not a type of stepper motor?

A. Variable Reluctance
B. Hybrid
C. Magnetic
D. Lead-Screw

Which of the following is not a component of a stepper motor?

A. Windings
B. Rotor and Stator
C. Commutator
D. Brush
E. Both C and D

What is the difference between full-step and half-step?

A. In full-step two phases are on and in half-step only one phase is on.
B. More resonance is evident in half-step
C. More power required for full-step
D. Half-step offers better resolution

List industries that use stepper motors in their applications:

• Aircraft
• Automotive
• Chemical
• Consumer Electronics and Office Equipment
• Gaming
• Industrial Medical
• Scientific Instruments
• Surveillance Systems

What criteria's are necessary to consider when selecting a stepper motor?

A. Mechanical Motion
B. Inertial Load
C. Speed Requirements
D. All of the above

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of stepper motors?

A. Cost-efficient
B. Maintenance-free
C. No feedback
D. More complex circuitry

With a stator having 8 teeth and a rotor having 6 teeth, what step angle will an application be able to achieve?

A. 15°
B. 51°
C. 20°
D. 105°

If an application using a stepper motor required feedback, which device would be needed to accomplish this?

A. Counter
B. Encoder
C. Linear Guide
D. Commutator